Shuang yuan Primary School, Taipei, Teacher Shin-mei, Lin
It is gratifying that Smarter lessons based on Smarter Classrooms has changed traditional classroom over time and become the mainstream. I have conducted teaching activities including IRS TEAM Model Smarter Classroom, TBL TEAM Model Smarter Classroom and 1-to-1 TEAM Model Smarter Classroom etc. for nearly ten years, trying out new teaching models, discussion lessons and review lessons, meanwhile, researching similarities and differences between the lecture modes of language class, math class, science class, and social studies class. In the process of my on-going research of Smarter Classroom, I went to schools in different regions to share and demonstrate Smart Lessons from time to time. Based on these experiences, I conducted research and came up with the Heart-To-Heart Model and its lesson samples to better spread and duplicate the idea of Smarter Classroom.
The three lesson samples are deeply integrated with the three levels of TEAM Model Based Smarter Learning (Power Wu, Steven Liang). It is divided into four stages: Focus, Learning, Expansion and Achievement, and also employs the four situations in TEAM Model Based Smarter Learning strategies. The main key points of this model includes student-orientated teaching, in-class interaction and data-based strategies, diversified teaching materials design, as well as group learning and individual-learning in an 1-to-1 TEAM Model Smarter Classroom environment, hoping to assist teachers in grasping the concept of lesson design with the idea of TEAM Model Classroom and TEAM Model Based Smarter Learning.
The Heart-To-Heart Model is the accumulation of experiences throughout the years of using Smarter Classroom to conduct Smarter lessons. It is applicable across subjects such as languages, math, science, social studies etc.. With in-depth integration of Subject Material Contents (C), Group-Learning Pedagogy (P), and Smarter Teaching Supporting System (T), teachers can create lively ambiance which helps children concentrate on the class to heighten learning effectiveness. The mindset of this teaching model is to help students reach constant “focus”, “learning”, “expansion”, and “achievements”, which constitutes a smarter classroom. Explication on key points and illustration (Figure1) of the pattern are as follow:
Comprehend diagrams to build up rapport: a smart classroom equipped with technology collects data quickly, allows class members to get to know one another’s thoughts between teachers and students or students and students, and help individuals concentrate in class.
Review the thinking process to make changes: With technology that collects and analyzes data quickly, teachers can realize students’ learning condition and opt to utilize corresponding teaching strategies. For example, teachers can ask students to answer the same questions for the second time to get to know the reason why students change or remain their opinions, by which attain learning goals.
Diversified thinking with different opinions: data collecting devices such as IRS, tablets, and smart phones, collect different opinions quickly, allowing students to share, probe and listen to a diversity of thoughts within a group or between groups, by which expand one’s multiple abilities.
See the difference and give materials according to students’ aptitude: use valid data provided by technology devices to select effective strategies. Conduct diversified teaching and learning to better individual groups and each student.
Figure 1. Heart-To-Heart TEAM Model Based Smarter Learning
III. The idea of Teaching model Designing
The sample is the practice of “Heart-To-Heart TBSL pattern.” It combines Team-based Learning with Smart Teaching Supporting System in hopes of tending each kid’s need and their learning situation, enhancing each kid’s learning effectiveness and helps each kid with diverse development.
The lesson makes students be aware of regular correlations of shapes and numbers and describe them through observing, probing, and discussion.
The teaching plan starts from shapes contrasting. Then, students are asked to observe a series of shapes and numbers to figure out regular correlations between them. By this chance, teacher deduces the arithmetic approach an=a1+(n-1)×d. Finally, integrate examples of real life into questions. Combine learning with reality to enhance learning effectiveness.
In terms of teaching materials, teachers should design multiple choice questions that help collect students’ thoughts on which teaching strategies are based so that teachers can instantly acquire prior knowledge; use the questioning function to know students’ misunderstood concepts and then conduct second answering strategy to facilitate peer discussion, which brings out correct concepts and examine students’ learning process.
(i) Creates Learning Atmosphere and Encourage Collaboration between Peers
Through statistic charts, teachers get to know students’ thoughts; students get to know each other’s thoughts as well, allowing class members to better concentrate on learning tasks in class. In addition, teachers can come up with incentives for groups or individuals to encourage teamwork and boost the atmosphere during competitions.
(ii) Use Second Answering Mechanism to Make Changes
Teachers show the questions and have students answer with IRS. Statistic charts among groups are presented to students so that they may discover different opinions within groups. After group discussion, have students answer the questions again (Second Answering Mechanism). This makes sure students rectify themselves by reviewing the results of first and second answering.
(iii) Activate Learning and Spur Diverse Thinking
Teachers show the questions and ask students to think and answer by themselves first. Then, use data collecting devices to quickly collect different thoughts which should be communicated within groups. As students see the differences, they reflect on the questions and figure out the best solutions.
(iv) Comprehensive Diversified Teaching to Diminish Learning
After showing questions to students, teachers can spot individuals or groups which needs help through data analysis and provide diversified teaching materials or assistance to enhance individuals’ learning effectiveness.
(i) Real-time Collecting and Data Analysis
Through statistic charts, teachers get to know students thoughts; students get to know each other’s as well. Teachers can conduct correspondent teaching strategies; students get to know their own learning condition.
(ii) Quick Sending and Data Collecting
With tablets, smart phones and such devices, teachers can send questions efficiently and quickly collect diverse opinions, allowing a glance into different thinking processes.
(iii) Save Complete Versions of Teaching and Learning Procedures
Teachers save teaching and learning procedures in class via technology. The record can be used it in remedial teaching and extension study or used as an evidence for teachers’ self-improving.
4. Teaching Key Points and Teaching Situations
(i) Focus---comprehend diagrams to build up rapport
1. Teachers ask questions; students answer through IRS which instantly shows statistic results. Through real-time charts, class members get to know one another’s thoughts.
2. Teachers and students have discussion according to statistical results.
Figure 2. Presenting Statistical Bar Chart in Class
(ii) Learning--- review the thinking process to make changes
Figure 3. Bar Chart of Second Answering
1. Teachers ask questions; students answer through IRS which instantly shows statistic results. Through real-time charts team members get to know different opinions with a group.
2. Conduct group discussion or whole class discussion, after which have students answer the questions again (Second Answering Mechanism). This helps teachers know which students change their thoughts, why and how do they change their opinions to achieve teaching aims.
(iii) Expansion--- diversified thinking with different opinions:
1. Teachers send teaching materials to tablets of each group and conduct group answering or send materials to tablets of individuals to conduct individual answering.
2. Students send their answers to teachers’ terminals by uploading them to working area or fast delivering function. Teachers can show a variety of opinions to students and have them conduct intragroup or intergroup sharing and discussion.
Figure 4. Send Materials Promptly and Show the Answers
(iv) Achievements--- see the difference and give materials according to students' aptitude
1. Teachers can conduct teaching strategies basing on statistical analysis. Take Figure 5 for example, teachers can directly join the discussion of group 2 while group 1, 3, and 4 can fulfill learning tasks through peer teaching.
2. According to the results of statistical analysis, teachers can give diversified teaching materials so that each students can fulfill one’s own learning tasks.
Figure 5. Teachers Conduct Strategies Basing on Data Analysis
IV. Comparison and Analysis between Lesson Samples
The sample lesson is based on the math class: “ Regular Patterns of Shapes”, the designs are aimed for “Student-centered Highly Interactive Learning,” “Synchronized Diversification,” and Group Learning One-on-one (detailed teaching design please confer to attachment 1 to 3). The analysis of similarities and differences between lessons based on the three instructional designs are as follow:
1. Lesson Sample of Student-centered Learning
The lesson takes place in TBL TEAM Model Smarter Classroom. Instructional design mainly focus on “individual thinking and answering” and “group discussion and sharing” At the beginning, ask each student to do “individual thinking and answering” After calculation, students use IRS Real-time Feedback System to answer. Teachers then conduct teaching strategies basing on the real-time data statistics.
For example, if the passing rate of the whole class is over 80%, it means that most students have grasped the idea. Teachers can randomly pick a student to share his idea to ensure every student has fully understood the concept. Then, teachers can move on to the next point while teachers can still check out the data of students who is falling behind after class and conduct remedial teaching (Figure 6).
If the passing rate is between 50% and 80%, the strategy is to conduct “group discussion and sharing” first and then ask students to answer the questions again (Second Answering Mechanism). Teachers then conduct correspondent teaching strategies depending on the result of second answering.
If the passing rate is below 50%, it means most students are not able to handle the concept and then teachers should conduct concept teaching again. After teaching, have students answer the questions again (Second Answering Mechanism). Conduct corresponding teaching strategies according to the results of students’ second answering.
Figure 6. Diagram based on Data Strategies
2. Lesson Sample of Synchronous Differentiated Instruction
Figure 7. Teachers Conduct Strategies According to Data Analysiscenter
The lesson sample based on TBL TEAM Model Smarter Classroom not only employs whole-class statistical data to conduct teaching strategies in a “student-centered highly interactive context”. The refined lesson also uses group statistical data as reference to draw up teaching strategies and conduct group “diversified learning.” We classify students into three categories according to their capacity (answering types) and design three corresponding teaching materials. Take the statistical data of Figure 7 for example:
If option (1) stands for capable students; (2) stands for average students; (3) stands for students needing help. Teachers can sends text materials to the tablet of group 5, materials with partial clues to group 1 and 6, materials with detailed clues to group 2, 3, and 4, through peer teaching to achieve learning tasks (Figure 8).
Figure 8. Illustration of Data Strategies and Pushing Diversified Teaching Materials
3. Lesson Sample of TEAM Model 1-to-1
The sample lesson uses 1-to-1 TEAM Model Smarter Classroom. It not only uses whole-class statistic data to devise teaching strategies in a “student-centered highly interactive classroom,” but overcomes the problem that diversified materials can be only sent to group tablets basing on answering data of groups in a “synchronized diversified classroom.” The design sends diversified materials to tablets of each student directly according to their answers so that we can really fulfill personal diversified learning.
AttachmentAttachment 1 - Lesson Sample on Regular Patterns of Shapes, Senior Math Class(Student-Centered Learning)
Attachment 2 - Lesson Sample on Regular Patterns of Shapes, Senior Math Class(Synchronous Differentiated Instruction)
Attachment 3 - Lesson Sample on Regular Patterns of Shapes, Senior Math Class(TEAM Model 1-to-1)